Adding Hashes to Filenames

Console Cat - Privacy-friendly CLI telemetry in less than five minutes - Interview with Matt Evenson

Even though the generated build works, the file names it uses is problematic. It doesn't allow to leverage client level cache efficiently as there's no way tell whether or not a file has changed. Cache invalidation can be achieved by including a hash to the filenames.

Starting from version 5, webpack is using a deterministic way of generating filenames that's a good compromise between bundle size and long time caching. The behavior is controllable through optimization.moduleIds and optimization.chunkIds. Latter applies to Code Splitting.
As discussed by Jake Archibald, deploying code or bundle split source comes with inherent challenges. It's possible the user is running an old version. The problem is detecting the case and dealing with it. One option would be to ask the user to refresh the site/application for example.


Webpack provides placeholders for this purpose. These strings are used to attach specific information to webpack output. The most valuable ones are:

  • [id] - Returns the chunk id.
  • [path] - Returns the file path.
  • [name] - Returns the file name.
  • [ext] - Returns the extension. [ext] works for most available fields.
  • [fullhash] - Returns the build hash. If any portion of the build changes, this changes as well.
  • [chunkhash] - Returns an entry chunk-specific hash. Each entry defined in the configuration receives a hash of its own. If any portion of the entry changes, the hash will change as well. [chunkhash] is more granular than [fullhash] by definition.
  • [contenthash] - Returns a hash generated based on content. It's the new default in production mode starting from webpack 5.

It's preferable to use particularly hash and contenthash only for production purposes as hashing doesn't do much good during development.

There are more options available, and you can even modify the hashing and digest type as discussed at loader-utils documentation.
If you are using webpack 4, be careful with contenthash as it's not fully reliable. There chunkhash may be the preferable option.

Example placeholders#

Assume you have the following configuration:

const config = {
  output: {
    filename: "[name].[contenthash].js",

Webpack generates filenames like these based on it:


If the file contents related to a chunk are different, the hash changes as well, thus the cache gets invalidated. More accurately, the browser sends a new request for the file. If only main bundle gets updated, only that file needs to be requested again.

The same result can be achieved by generating static filenames and invalidating the cache through a querystring (i.e., main.js?d587bbd6e38337f5accd). The part behind the question mark invalidates the cache. According to Steve Souders, attaching the hash to the filename is the most performant option.

Setting up hashing#

The build needs tweaking to generate proper hashes. Adjust as follows:


const productionConfig = merge([
{ output: { chunkFilename: "[name].[contenthash].js", filename: "[name].[contenthash].js", assetModuleFilename: "[name].[contenthash][ext][query]", }, },
... ]);

To make sure extracted CSS receives hashes as well, adjust:

exports.extractCSS = ({ options = {}, loaders = [] } = {}) => {
  return {
    plugins: [
      new MiniCssExtractPlugin({
filename: "[name].css",
filename: "[name].[contenthash].css",
}), ], }; };

If you generate a build now (npm run build), you should see something:

⬡ webpack: Build Finished
⬡ webpack: assets by path *.js 129 KiB
    asset vendor.16...22.js 126 KiB [emitted] [immutable] [minimized] (name: vendor) (id hint: commons) 2 related assets
    asset main.db...11.js 3.4 KiB [emitted] [immutable] [minimized] (name: main) 2 related assets
    asset 34.a4...c5.js 257 bytes [emitted] [immutable] [minimized] 2 related assets
  asset 1.87 KiB [emitted] [immutable] (name: main)
  asset index.html 285 bytes [emitted]
  webpack 5.5.0 compiled successfully in 6593 ms

The files have neat hashes now. To prove that it works for styling, you could try altering src/main.css and see what happens to the hashes when you rebuild.


Including hashes related to the file contents to their names allows to invalidate them on the client-side. If a hash has changed, the client is forced to download the asset again.

To recap:

  • Webpack's placeholders allow you to shape filenames and enable you to include hashes to them.
  • The most valuable placeholders are [name], [contenthash], and [ext]. A content hash is derived based on the chunk content.
  • If you are using MiniCssExtractPlugin, you should use [contenthash] as well. This way the generated assets get invalidated only if their content changes.

The next chapter discusses the topic of webpack runtime. To make sure changes made to it won't invalidate more code than it should, it's a good practice to separate it.

Philip Walton has written about caching in detail and his article is a great read if you want to know more about the topic on a more general level.
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